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An analysis of continental philosophy ( محمودرضا قاسمی)

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An analysis of continental philosophy ( محمودرضا قاسمی)
 An analysis of continental philosophy ( محمودرضا قاسمی)


 The concept of continental or European philosophy refers to the flow and philosophical tradition that historically encompasses a wide variety of philosophical schools and philosophies such as Cartesian rationalism, German idealism, phenomenology, existentialism, noctantism, hermeneutics, postmodernism, and so on. Geographically but more commonly used in the European union. However, it is not clear to scholars in the field of contemporary philosophies that spatial and geographical criteria are not precise criteria for determining the delimitation of philosophical ideas, and the use of words such as continental philosophy or Anglo-American philosophy on existential or analytic philosophies is not empty of indecency. There are many indicators for the delimitation of the continental tradition from other currents that are briefly mentioned:

1- The rejection of the authority of scientism means the negation of the authority of the sciences and not of the sciences.
2- Emphasis on practical areas of human sovereignty such as freedom and liberty, rather than relying on theoretical aspects, which can be referred to as the primacy of practical reason for theoretical reason.
3- Belief in a priori elements in the development of knowledge
4- Maximum tendency to historicity in interpretation

 Nocenth stream

After Hegel, a group of German thinkers thought of reviving Kant's philosophy in a way other than Hegel's philosophy. Noncantian thinkers are divided into three general categories: independent Neccantes such as Dilthey and Simmel, the Neccantes of the Marburg School, such as Cohen, Nutrop and Cassirer, the Neccantes of the School of Southwestern Germany such as Rickert and Windbiland. The main features of the current trend are: a) belief in the separation and independence of the realm of natural sciences from the human sciences. B) Neglect of metaphysics. C) Attention to the a priori elements in the process of cognition. D) the authenticity of the historical attitude; and the recognition of the phenomenal phenomena and the negation of independent entities of knowledge. As in Kant, the subject of transcendence is the origin of the determination of existence, with the novices there is no tangible thing that is unconventional to reveal to the subject, but with a few differences: the first is the denial of the Kant's Nommenon, which is It becomes a mere idea, in the form of a historical but unpredictable purpose. Also, to the Marburgists, especially Hermann Cohen, the transcendental subject places its place in the "logical space", which is an essential and a priori element of cognition, on the basis of which the plurality of uncertainties is returned to an externality that is also the reason for their determination. In other words, the recognition of the scholars of the Marburg school has three stages: in the first stage, the world of sensory qualities, and in the second stage, the perceptions of sensory affairs are decimated and eventually determine the mathematical thought of existence and make it unified. However, in the southwest school - especially with Riccardo - moral and cultural criteria are combined with logical and mathematical criteria to provide the context and conditions for reaching the general wisdom of mankind.

 Phenomenology

Some scholars have identified the roots of phenomenology historically in Aristotle and medieval scholarly scholars, but in terms of its intrinsic development in the contemporary era, it should be noted that the philosopher, German psychologist Franz Brentano and professor Husserl pointed out. Husserl himself is the main figure in the history of phenomenology and the most original of them. In analyzing his thoughts to Plato, Aristotle, the medieval theologians, Descartes, Leibniz, Hume, Kant, Hegel, and Frege, we find that while influencing them and digesting elements of their thoughts, they have both inventive aspects and innovations, as well as originality and Maintains its intellectual independence. Phenomenology to Husserl-As hermeneutics by Schlumbermacher and Diltai-is a methodological aspect that has emerged in its "rational research" in its primitive but precise form. The concern of modernism is consciousness, and one of the tools of the discussion of consciousness is the conditions for its realization. Husserl also followed Descartes and Kant to find the same point of Archimedes' reliance on the certainty of knowledge and transcendental conditions. In general, Husserl's phenomenology has two stages: 1- Suspension (epoxy) 2- Delivery (interpretation)

The suspension is initially a critique of the realist, crude, and primitive perception of the exaltationists of the belief in the existence of a world independent of the human mind. Husserl does not deny the universe of nature, but opposes the natural view. In fact, and more precisely, this suspension is the suspension of the ruling, according to which the "judgment of the existence or the non-submission of an independent mind" is suspended and so-called in parenthesis. But reduction, which is one of the key concepts of Husserl's thinking, has its degrees and stages: the delivery or the phenomenological interpretation leads to inherent delivery, and the inherent delivery leads to transcendental delivery.

Husserl's view of this (the negation of a realistic conception of the universe) is initially Humean, but the sooner he goes from Hume and approaches Plato and Platonism: when there is no inherent thing and merely a set of phenomena (in the sense of intuition), simultaneously from the area The mind also intuitively rays on the object, and simultaneously with the sensory intuition, an intellectual intuition occurs, which, on the one hand, assembles the phonemes (the quashing action); on the other hand, the phonemes form a "face" and an essence (ideological action). Intentional intentionality, intentionality, or intentionality is, in the most important, the most important concept in Husserl's phenomenology. Another duality in Husserl's thinking is the distinction of "noes" from the "noema". Noesis is a self-perception and a noem belonging to perception. In the process of consciousness, there is a flow and a return ratio between the noema and the noesis, which is this
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